Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) is an advanced approach in machine learning that combines traditional reinforcement learning with human-generated feedback. In classical reinforcement learning, an agent learns to perform tasks by interacting with its environment and receiving rewards based on its actions. However, defining suitable reward functions for complex tasks can be challenging. This is where RLHF comes into play, as it incorporates human input to guide and improve the learning process.

In RLHF, human feedback is used to either directly influence the reward function or to augment it. This feedback can take various forms, such as humans rating the quality of the agent’s actions, suggesting better actions, or even directly manipulating the reward values based on the agent’s behavior. The key idea is that human judgment can provide nuanced and sophisticated guidance that might be difficult to codify in a standard reward function.

This human-in-the-loop approach allows the learning agent to understand and perform tasks that are aligned more closely with human values and preferences. It’s particularly useful in scenarios where the desired outcome is subjective or complex, and where explicit programming of all rules and contingencies is impractical.

RLHF has been instrumental in developing systems where safety, ethical considerations, and alignment with human intentions are crucial. It enables the creation of more adaptable and context-aware AI systems that can operate effectively in diverse and dynamic real-world situations.

This is part of a series of articles about large language models.

RLHF vs. Traditional Reinforcement Learning 

The primary difference between Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) and traditional reinforcement learning lies in how the learning agent is guided toward its goal.

In traditional reinforcement learning:

  • The agent learns by interacting with its environment and receiving rewards or penalties based on its actions.
  • The rewards are predefined by the system developers and are usually specific and quantifiable. For example, in a game, points scored or levels completed can be clear metrics for rewards.
  • The agent’s learning is driven by trying to maximize these rewards, which in turn shapes its behavior and strategy.
  • The challenge is in designing a reward system that accurately reflects the desired outcomes and guides the agent effectively.


  • Human feedback is incorporated into the learning process. This can be in the form of direct input on the agent’s actions, adjusting the reward system based on human judgment, or providing examples of desired behaviors.
  • This human input allows for more nuanced and complex guidance that can be difficult to encode in a traditional reward function.
  • It is possible to address scenarios where the desired outcomes are subjective or not easily quantifiable. For example, answering a question in a way that is useful for the human who asked it.

How Does RLHF Work? 

Initial Phase

The process starts with an initial training phase where a basic model or policy is established. This phase can employ traditional machine learning techniques, such as supervised learning, to provide the agent with a preliminary understanding of the task at hand. 

The model is trained on a dataset that represents the desired task but doesn’t necessarily cover the complexities or the nuances that the agent will encounter in real-world scenarios. The goal here is to establish a foundational behavior that can be refined in later stages. It’s essential that this phase results in a model that’s competent enough to produce meaningful interactions for subsequent human feedback.

Human Feedback

Once the initial model is established, the next phase involves collecting human feedback. This feedback can be gathered in various forms, such as humans rating the quality of decisions made by the agent, suggesting better actions, or providing corrective feedback on the agent’s behavior. 

One common approach is to use techniques like preference-based learning, where a human trainer is presented with pairs of scenarios and asked to choose the better outcome. Another approach is to have human trainers provide real-time feedback as the agent performs tasks. This feedback is then used to adjust the reward function or to directly modify the agent’s policy. 

The key challenge in this phase is to ensure that the feedback is consistent, unbiased, and scales effectively to cover the breadth of situations the agent might encounter.

Reinforcement Learning

In the final phase, the agent undergoes reinforcement learning with the augmented reward function that incorporates the human feedback. This phase is iterative and involves the agent interacting with its environment, receiving rewards (shaped by human feedback), and adjusting its policy to maximize these rewards. 

The human-influenced rewards help the agent in learning behaviors that are more aligned with human expectations and values. Advanced techniques such as deep reinforcement learning can be employed here to handle complex decision-making tasks. The challenge in this phase is to balance the exploration of new strategies and the exploitation of known successful behaviors, ensuring that the agent continues to improve and adapt.

RLHF in Real-World Applications 

Training Large Language Models (LLMs)

RLHF plays a crucial role in training large language models. Human feedback is used to fine-tune the model’s responses, ensuring they are not useful, accurate, and aligned with human values like safety and appropriateness. 

Initially, the language model is trained on a vast corpus of text data. Then, human feedback is incorporated to guide the model in generating responses that are contextually and ethically appropriate. For instance, trainers may rank the quality of responses or suggest better ones, which are then used to adjust the model’s behavior. This process helps in mitigating biases, reducing the generation of harmful content, and improving the overall quality of interactions.

RLHF was used to train OpenAI GPT 3.5 that powered the first version of ChatGPT, and was reported to be the major breakthrough that made LLMs accessible and useful for millions of people.

Training Autonomous Vehicles

In autonomous vehicle development, RLHF is used to refine the decision-making algorithms that control the vehicle’s actions. The initial phase involves training the vehicle’s systems to understand and react to a variety of driving scenarios. Human feedback is then integrated to improve how the vehicle handles complex, nuanced situations that are difficult to capture with traditional sensors and algorithms alone. 

For example, human operators might provide feedback on the vehicle’s driving style, decision-making in ambiguous situations, or safety measures, which is then used to enhance the driving algorithms. This human-in-the-loop approach ensures that the autonomous vehicles operate safely and effectively in diverse and unpredictable real-world conditions.

Game Playing Agents

In the domain of gaming, RLHF is utilized to develop sophisticated game-playing agents. Initially, these agents are trained using standard reinforcement learning techniques to understand the game’s rules and basic strategies. Human feedback comes into play to fine-tune the agent’s strategies, making them more competitive and human-like. 

Experienced human players can provide insights or direct feedback on the agent’s moves, which are then used to refine its decision-making process. This approach has been instrumental in developing agents that can compete at high levels in complex games, often surpassing human performance.

Human-Computer Interaction and Software Assistants

RLHF is instrumental in enhancing the effectiveness of software assistants and human-computer interaction systems. These systems initially learn from user interactions and datasets to perform tasks like speech recognition, personalized recommendations, or user assistance. Human feedback is then used to refine these interactions, making the systems more intuitive and aligned with user preferences. 

For example, feedback can be used to improve the assistant’s understanding of user commands, the relevance of its responses, or the way it handles ambiguous queries. This makes the software assistants more user-friendly and efficient in handling real-world tasks.

Challenges and Limitations of RLHF 


One of the significant challenges in RLHF is scalability. As the complexity of the task increases, the amount of human feedback required to effectively train the model can become substantial. In cases like training large language models or autonomous vehicles, thousands or even millions of feedback instances might be necessary to cover the vast array of possible scenarios and decisions. This can be resource-intensive and time-consuming. 

Additionally, as the model grows and evolves, keeping the human feedback relevant and up-to-date becomes challenging. Automating parts of the feedback process or finding ways to generalize from limited feedback are ongoing areas of research to address these scalability issues.

Ambiguity in Feedback

Human feedback is inherently subjective and can vary significantly between individuals. Different people might have different opinions on what constitutes the “right” action or response in a given scenario. This ambiguity can lead to inconsistent training signals for the model. 

For instance, in language models, what one reviewer considers a good response, another might find inadequate or irrelevant. This variability can confuse the model and hinder its ability to learn clear and effective strategies. Establishing clear guidelines and consensus among human trainers and developing methods to handle conflicting feedback are essential to mitigate this issue.


Human feedback, while invaluable, can also introduce biases into the model. These biases might be due to cultural perspectives, personal beliefs, or unintentional preferences of the individuals providing the feedback. 

For example, in language models, the biases of trainers can seep into the model’s responses, leading to skewed or unfair outcomes. Similarly, in autonomous vehicles, the driving style and safety perceptions of the trainers can influence the driving behavior of the vehicle. 

Addressing bias in RLHF involves a careful selection of a diverse and representative group of human trainers, as well as the implementation of checks and balances to identify and correct biased feedback.